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This hybrid nanomaterial takes advantage of the properties of rGO and the magnetic properties of iron oxide making it an attractive substrate for biosensor design. While HRP and laccase have been vital in enzyme biosensor studies, other enzymes can be immobilized to create highly specific biosensors. For example, bilirubin oxidase was immobilized on GO-based surfaces [ , ]. Such biosensors can have a significant impact in the medical field due to their ability to detect bilirubin, an essential compound for assessing liver function.
Silver Nanoparticle Applications
Another enzyme with medical applications is glucose oxidase GOx. This enzyme is highly specific and has been used to develop biosensors for the measurement of glucose levels [ , , , , , , , , ]. This type of biosensor could be especially important to diabetic patients. These sensing platforms show the versatility that graphene and its nanocomposites have regarding the chemistry for the detection of different substrates.
In this mini-review, we have reported recent studies describing graphene and graphene-related biosensors with possible applications in clinical settings and life sciences. We have shown results of the reported analytical performance of each sensor and indicated their use in the life sciences and medical fields. DNA, antibody, and enzyme-based biosensors have been presented in this study since each has its advantages and disadvantages.
Overall, the type of sensor selected will depend on the type of application. For example, use of DNA in biosensing technology can be a cost-effective method for the rapid detection of microbes, viruses, or cancer markers.
However, due to the vast variety of molecules present in the body, use of antibodies or enzymes in biosensors can be more effective in the detection or monitoring of certain diseases. For instance, antibodies can be used for the specific detection of viruses, such as the Zika virus, HIV, Influenza A virus, among others. Enzymes, on the other hand, have shown to be promising in detecting glucose levels with only small amounts of sample. Overall, the incorporation of graphene and graphene-based nanomaterials in biosensor technologies have shown great promise due to its high surface area, electrical conductivity, electron transfer rate, and its capacity to immobilize a variety of different biomolecules.
The development of biosensors that are sensitive, stable, and specific to their target molecule and that can be processed rapidly are promising for use in clinical settings. However, to achieve uniform and reliable results and produce biosensors capable of being used in the medical field, many more studies need to be conducted examining the safety and reliability of the sensors.
Although graphene is an excellent electrode material for sensing applications in the medical field, novel methods for well-controlled synthesis and processing of graphene need more attention and should be investigated in future studies. The current chemical strategies to modify the surface of graphene with biomolecules are effective in targeting specific analytes.
Nevertheless, the sensing platform may be further refined to avoid the adsorption of unwanted molecules on graphene and improve the orientation of biomolecules on graphene platforms. Hence, a better understanding of the physics and chemistry at the surface of graphene and the interactions with biomolecules at the interface will play an important role in graphene-based nanosensors.
Additionally, miniaturization and production of compact biosensors for diagnostic purposes is an emergent need in sensor technology since it requires development of reliable, reproducible, and cost-effective sensors with high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. Lowering the cost of some of these sensors is necessary to increase usability in remote areas for emergency uses.
Furthermore, miniaturization of the sensors can allow rapid detection of virus and bacterial pathogens, as well as use in self-monitoring biological implants to detect serious health conditions. However, considerable work must still be done to ensure, guarantee, and corroborate the biocompatibility and non-toxicity of graphene-based nanomaterials such that their long-term use does not pose any health risk.
Diagnosis of pathogenic entamoeba histolytica infection using a stool elisa based on monoclonal antibodies to the galactose-specific adhesin. J Infect Dis. Pathogen detection: a perspective of traditional methods and biosensors. Biosens Bioelectron.battcredirun.ml
Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles
Polymerase chain reaction detection of nonviable bacterial pathogens. Appl Environ Microbiol. Sequence-specific identification of 18 pathogenic microorganisms using microarray technology. Mol Cell Probes. Evaluation of a newly developed lateral flow immunoassay for the diagnosis of cryptococcosis.
Clin Infect Dis. Holger S, Maya R, T. DNA microarrays for pathogen detection. Mod Tech Pathog Detect. New York: Wiley; Wilson CB. Sensors in medicine. West J Med. Sensors for detecting biological agents. Mater Today. Nanowire sensor for medicine and the life science. Graphene and graphene oxide: synthesis, properties, and applications. Adv Mater. Graphene-based biosensors: going simple. Graphene based biosensors—accelerating medical diagnostics to new-dimensions. J Mater Res. The application of graphene for in vitro and in vivo electrochemical biosensing.
Graphene and graphene oxide: biofunctionalization and applications in biotechnology. Trends Biotechnol. Strategies for chemical modification of graphene and applications of chemically modified graphene. J Mater Chem. Pumera M.
Bendable Electro-chemical Lactate Sensor Printed with Silver Nano-particles | Scientific Reports
Graphene in biosensing. Graphene: the new two-dimensional nanomaterial. Angew Chemie. Graphene-based nanoelectronic biosensors. J Ind Eng Chem. Recent advances in graphene-based biosensors. Highly efficient fluorescence quenching with graphene. J Phys Chem C. J Electron Mater. Study of fluorescence quenching ability of graphene oxide with a layer of rigid and tunable silica spacer.
Label-free detection of tumor markers using field effect transistor FET -based biosensors for lung cancer diagnosis. Sens Actuators B. Detection of Salmonella typhimurium on spinach using phage-based magnetoelastic biosensors. Simple and label-free electrochemical impedance Amelogenin gene hybridization biosensing based on reduced graphene oxide.
Development of electrochemical immunosensors towards point of care diagnostics. Antibody nanosensors: a detailed review. RSC Adv. Fischer MJE.
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- Biomaterials and Nanotherapeutics for Enhancing Skin Wound Healing?
Surf plasmon reson methods protoc. Totowa: Humana Press; Current technologies of electrochemical immunosensors: perspective on signal amplification. Biomedical perspective of electrochemical nanobiosensor. Nano-Micro Lett. Graphene-based biosensors for detection of bacteria and their metabolic activities.
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Graphene-interfaced electrical biosensor for label-free and sensitive detection of foodborne pathogenic E. Novel graphene-based biosensor for early detection of Zika virus infection. A novel method for dengue virus detection and antibody screening using a graphene-polymer based electrochemical biosensor.
Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med. A graphene oxide based immuno-biosensor for pathogen detection. Graphene oxide-based biosensor for detection of platelet-derived microparticles: a potential tool for thrombus risk identification. Biosensors and bioelectronics rapid detection of single E coli bacteria using a graphene-based field-effect transistor device. Escherichia coli bacteria detection by using graphene-based biosensor. IET Nanobiotechnol. Sign C, Sumana G. Antibody conjugated graphene nanocomposites for pathogen detection. J Phys. Valipour A, Roushani M. Using silver nanoparticle and thiol graphene quantum dots nanocomposite as a substratum to load antibody for detection of hepatitis C virus core antigen: electrochemical oxidation of riboflavin was used as redox probe.
Silver nanoparticles coated graphene electrochemical sensor for the ultrasensitive analysis of avian influenza virus H7. Anal Chim Acta.