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Book Format: Choose an option. Product Highlights Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding the origins of cutaneous maligant melanoma. In relation to clinical and histological features, melanoma can be divided into 3 main subtypes: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma and lentigo maligna melanoma.
It is related to the intermittent exposure to the sun and it is localized most often on the back of the legs of women and on the backs of men. Superficial spreading melanomas may arise de novo or in association with a nevus 5. From the clinical point of view, this cancer shows a variety of colors including tan, brown, gray, black, violaceus, pink and rarely blue or white. The lesion outline is usually sharply marginated with one or more irregular peninsula-like protrusions. The surface may have a palpable papule or a nodule that extends several millimeters above the skin surface. Nodular Melanoma NMM.
Nodular melanomas are often ulcerated. It does not have a radial growth phase but it has only a vertical growth phase correlated with more rapid growth and higher rate of metastasis 5. Clinically, NMM has a relative uniform brown, black, or blue-black color; it can present as a smoothly-surfaced nodule, as an ulcerated polyp or as an elevated plaque with irregular outlines. It is related with the intermittent exposure to the sun. Histologically, NMM is characterized by a predominance of dermal invasive tumor. An intradermal component may be present but directly overlies the invasive melanoma.
The tumor is composed of small nests and aggregates of cancer cells that together form the overall tumor nodule 2. This cancer may evolve for decades before invading into the papillary dermis 5. Clinically, it shows a variety of colors black, brown or brown on a tan background. It has irregular outlines and although the tumor is often relatively large and flat, a focus of invasion may be detected as a papule.
It is located mainly at the neck and head 2. Histologically, it is characterized by a proliferation of cells that are localized to the basal layers of the epidermis. Typically, it affects elderly patients, with a female predominance. ALM is mainly localized on glabrous skin and adjacent skin of digits, palms and soles; it usually involves the nail bed of the great toe or thumb 5. Desmoplastic Melanoma DM. Desmoplastic melanoma often occurs in individuals between the age of 60 and 70 years, it rises on the head and neck but it can occur on a variety of cutaneous and mucosal areas.
It is slightly more common in men. Clinically, desmoplastic melanoma may be amelanotic and it can present as an erythematous or pale or flash-colored nodule or plaque arising in sun-damaged skin.go
Melanoma: What Are the Gaps in Our Knowledge?
This cancer is positive for S and it may be difficult to differentiate desmoplastic melanoma from scars tissue because Spositive cells can also be seen in dermal scars. This cancer often shows nerve infiltration and it is characterized by high recurrence rates due to their highly infiltrative growth and frequent perineural invasion. It has a high incidence of local recurrence but it rarely metastasizes to the lymph nodes; however, it has a propensity to metastasize to the lungs 5. Other Rare Forms of melanoma have been also described, notably balloon cell melanoma, myxoid melanoma, osteogenic melanoma, rhabdoid melanoma, that will be discussed in another review.
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Table II. Melanoma clinical subtypes. Previous Section. Ann Oncol 20 : 1 - 7 , Duncan LM : The classification of cutaneous melanoma. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 23 : - , CrossRef Medline Google Scholar. Hum Genet 4 : - , Google Scholar. Eur J Cancer 17 : - , Mayo Clin Proc 3 : - , Rigel DS : Epidemiology of melanoma. Semin Cutan Med Surg 4 : - , Ann Oncol 20 Suppl 6 : vi1 - 7 , Br J Dermatol 6 : - , Sun exposure.
Eur J Cancer 41 : 45 - 60 , Int J Cancer 73 : - , J Natl Cancer Inst 78 : 37 - 44 , International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group on artificial ultraviolet UV light and skin cancer : The association of use of sunbeds with cutaneous malignant melanoma and other skin cancers: a systematic review. Int J Cancer : - , J Am Acad Dermatol 44 : - , Arch Dermatol : - , J Am Acad Dermatol 17 : - , Cancer 66 : - , Halpern AC , Guerry D 4th. A case—control study. Common and atypical naevi.
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Eur J Cancer 41 : 28 - 44 , Plast Reconstr Surg : - , Medline Google Scholar. J Am Acad Dermatol 52 : - , JAMA : - , Etiologic and other factors predicting nevus associated cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14 : - , Most users should sign in with their email address. If you originally registered with a username please use that to sign in. To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above.
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Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma in Central Iran: A 20-Year Study
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